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Human Trafficking

Prevalence, Abuse & Exploitation of Street Children

In the first decade of the 21st Century                                       

Republic of Indonesia

Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has made significant economic advances under the administration of President YUDHOYONO, but faces challenges stemming from the global financial crisis and world economic downturn.

Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions.

Economic difficulties in early 2008 centered on high global food and oil prices and their impact on Indonesia's poor and on the budget.  [The World Factbook, U.S.C.I.A. 2009]

Description: Description: Description: Indonesia

CAUTION:  The following links and accompanying text have been culled from the web to illuminate the situation in Indonesia.  Some of these links may lead to websites that present allegations that are unsubstantiated or even false.  No attempt has been made to validate their authenticity or to verify their content.



If you are looking for material to use in a term-paper, you are advised to scan the postings on this page and others to see which aspect(s) of street life are of particular interest to you.  You might be interested in exploring how children got there, how they survive, and how some manage to leave the street.  Perhaps your paper could focus on how some street children abuse the public and how they are abused by the public … and how they abuse each other.  Would you like to write about market children? homeless children?  Sexual and labor exploitation? begging? violence? addiction? hunger? neglect? etc.  There is a lot to the subject of Street Children.  Scan other countries as well as this one.  Draw comparisons between activity in adjacent countries and/or regions.  Meanwhile, check out some of the Term-Paper resources that are available on-line.


Check out some of the Resources for Teachers attached to this website.


Sexual abuse common among street children

Jakarta Post, Jakarta, 12 June 2007

[accessed 30 May 2011]

[accessed 13 December 2016]

[scroll down]

Amran, Brebes' friend, started living on the streets after his parents divorced and his father remarried without telling him. By the age of eight, Amran had already experienced the hard life of a street child, working as a shoe polisher at the National Monument (Monas) in Central Jakarta, where he was also sexually abused.

"When I was a shoe polisher one of my consumers sexually abused me and gave me Rp 3,000 (US33 cents)," said Amran, 19, who works odd jobs to make a living.He said at the time he did not understand what had happened to him. "I spent the money to play a pinball machine game," he said. "But as time passed, I learned that the person had treated me badly."

He said most of his friends living on the streets had been sexually abused by adults. "In fact, some of them make a living out of it," he said.  – SCCP

Street Children Need Government Protection Too

Richel Dursin, Inter Press Service News Agency IPS, Jakarta, 13 jul 2000

[accessed 30 May 2011]

Teguh became a street singer, beggar, robber, and "joki" or a driver’s companion on Jakarta's streets where only vehicles with at least three passengers are allowed to pass. In a day, he earned between 15,000 and 20,000 rupiah, but members of criminal syndicates looted half of his earnings.


*** ARCHIVES ***

For Indonesia’s street children, coronavirus means more danger

COVID-19 has made life more dangerous for children on the streets who are even more at risk of being sexually abused.

Jessica Washington, Al Jazeera, 24 Jul 2020

[accessed 8 February 2023]

Life has always been dangerous for children on the streets but the coronavirus pandemic has highlighted just how vulnerable they are.  While the children of Depok can continue to come to their shelter, in many parts of the country, shelters have closed because of concerns about COVID-19 and young people have been forced to fend for themselves.

There is no concept of social distancing. The children have more pressing concerns than the risk of COVID-19 such as food, water and a safe place to rest.  “Living on the streets is not nice, sleeping in front of shops is not nice. If suddenly, someone offered you access to an apartment’s facilities … who would refuse?” she said.

The Department of Labor’s 2004 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

U.S. Dept of Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs, 2005

[accessed 13 February 2011]

INCIDENCE AND NATURE OF CHILD LABOR - Children work in agriculture and in the rattan and wood furniture, garment, footwear, food processing, toy, fishing, construction, and small-scale mining sectors.  Other children work in the informal sector selling newspapers, shining shoes, scavenging …

Human Rights Reports » 2005 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

U.S. Dept of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 8, 2006

[accessed  9 February 2020]

CHILDREN - According to the Ministry of Social Affairs, there were 46,800 street children across 21 provinces. Substantial numbers of street children were apparent in Jakarta and the provinces of East Java, West Java, North Sumatra, and South Sulawesi. Surabaya, in East Java, was home to approximately 8 thousand street children, many reportedly susceptible to sexual abuse and violence. Approximately 40 shelters in the province provided services to such children. The Jakarta City government opened a shelter in 2004 with the capacity for approximately200 children. The government continued to fund other shelters administered by local NGOs and paid for the education of some street children.

Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 30 January 2004

[accessed 13 February 2011]

[79] The Committee welcomes the introduction of the Social Safety Net Program for Street Children and of the Free Street Children Program of Bandung Raya.  It is nonetheless concerned at the high number of children living on the streets and at the violence to which they are subject, especially during sweep operations.

Facebook provides community for Indonesia's street kids

Sara Schonhardt, The Christian Science Monitor, November 12, 2010

[accessed 13 November 2010]

Facebook and Indonesia's Internet cafes give Indonesian homeless teenagers a break from the streets and a chance to feel like a normal teen.

The night can be tough for Indonesia's street children. Competition between gangs can turn bloody, and sexual abuse is common. Rather than sleep under bridges or fend off predators, many are finding relief in Facebook.   The hours between 10 p.m. and 5 a.m. are strangely busy at Indonesia's Internet cafes, where special packages allow kids to spend evenings online with a cup of coffee or piece of bread, all for only $1.   The intent is to entice users during off hours, says Azza Azzahra, an employee at Greenjaya Internet, where many of his late-night customers are teenage boys.

Out & About: What does the future hold for Jakarta’s street kids?

Mathilda Silalahi, The Jakarta Post, 11/09/2010

[accessed 9 November 2010]

[accessed 13 December 2016]

Alif (not his real name), a nine-year-old boy, ate his lontong sayur (rice cake in coconut milk soup) quickly.

Alif then told me that his mom told him to rent umbrellas to pedestrians caught in the rain. He has five siblings. He is the oldest and has failed school several times, which explains why he is still in the second grade at Kebon Manggis elementary school. He studies hard and recently got good grades. In fact English and Math have become his favorite subjects. But he doesn’t know what he wants to be when he grows up.

I can relate to why he is undecided about his future. His mother is self-employed, doing laundry for others and looking after his siblings. His father is a second-hand goods vendor under a pedestrian bridge in Kampung Melayu. For Alif, becoming a doctor is out of reach.

Then I looked at the next child, who ate his meal quickly, sometimes mumbling profanities. He has so little education and bearing. Harsh city life has taken its toll.

I concluded that there were two kinds of street children: children on the street and children of the street. Children on the street still have a family, a home and minimal education but they don’t spend most of their times on the street. Children of the street, however, are children who left their families behind and live on the street.

Baekuni killed seven boys or more in Jakarta

Jakarta Informer, Jan 14, 2010

[accessed 19 September 2011]

Click [here] to access the article.  Its URL is not displayed because of its length

[accessed 13 December 2016]

Baekuni, also called Babe and now 48 years old was arrested last week in East Jakarta after the body of a nine year old boy was discovered in Cakung. Babe was a gang leader of street kids and was found suspicious of child molestation and murder. He admitted that he killed at least 7 kids less than 12 years old.

Four of them where found already. Baekuni admitted that he sodomized all his victims, sometimes even after he strangled them to death. One of the kids from his gang was found headless last week at a flood canal construction project in East Jakarta. Most of the victims were not from his gang. An official said that Babe, a serial killer and rapist, is not mentally ill.

Street kids are a normal picture in the streets of all the big cities in Indonesia, especially in Jakarta. They can be found at nearly every traffic light in the city begging for money. Some of these street-kids are not even four years old.

Educating children in Timika no easy task

Markus Makur, The Jakarta Post, Timika, 05/13/2009

[accessed 30 May 2011]

School-aged children in Timika, Papua, apparently prefer scavenging for recyclable items, such as used soft drink cans, to attending school, as they can sell the items and earn money to supplement their families' income.   Their presence is easily noticeable along the roads in Timika city. They carry sacks on their backs, filling them with scrap items found in the city's garbage dumps, drains and canals.   Most of them are elementary school dropouts, something which can be attributed to the low level of awareness among parents of the importance of education.

Amereyauw expressed grave concerns over the inferior standard of education in Mimika for native Papuan children as most of them have dropped out of school and live on the streets. He said that most of the school-aged children do not attend school, likely due to their parents' ignorance on the importance of formal education.

As reported earlier, the Mimika regency administration announced that it would provide free education from elementary to senior high school levels this year in a effort to motivate parents of native Papuans as well as migrants to send their children to school, without bearing the burden of school fees.

Message Bans Giving Money to Street Children

Muh Syaifullah, Tempo Interactive, Yogyakarta, 28 April, 2009,20090428-173143,uk.html

[accessed 30 May 2011]

The Yogyakarta municipality is calling on people not to give money to beggars and street children. The message written on 16 billboards will be put up on streets where beggars and street children are normally based.

However, Sudarmaji, a street children activist at Klitren Lor, disagreed. “The message would not do much good because what they need are job opportunities and training,” he said.

Angkot: A cheap tour of the city's untold stories and unsung heroes

Widhyawati Ambara, Jakarta Post, Jakarta, 04/28/2009

[accessed 30 May 2011]

Two little boys, walking and holding hands, travel from the pavement to the middle of the road. The younger child seems barely able to walk steadily as he is likely only 2 years old. As the little street singers weave their way through the moving crowd of vehicles, we inside the angkot hold our breath, hoping they will safely reach our angkot, where they will play a brief song for a small amount of money.

Once inside, the older child starts to shake his musical instrument, a mineral water bottle filled with small pebbles or beans, muttering a song with a melody that barely resembles the original song. The younger gives each passenger an empty envelope with a note: "Please spare your money to buy us food and pay for our school fees." Out of pity, some of us donate Rp 500 or Rp 1000. Once their performance ends, they jump out of the angkot, again braving the herd of vehicles. We hold our breath, cursing their parents, if they have them, for allowing such young boys to wander alone on the streets and beg for money.

Ninety Percent of Homeless Children Go Back on the Streets

Ukky Primartantyo, Tempo Interactive, Surakarta, 14 March, 2009,20090314-164674,uk.html

[accessed 30 May 2011]

Bina Foundation coordinator, Bakat Muladiyanto, said only around 10 to 15 percent of homeless children do not return to the streets after they receive assistance.

He said it was difficult for these children to stay away from the streets because of their network with other street children.

Makassar bans people from giving money to beggars

Andy Hajramurni, The Jakarta Post, Makassar,  04 July 2008

[accessed 30 May 2011]

Makassar mayoralty in South Sulawesi has issued a local ordinance banning people from giving money to beggars in a bid to stem the recent sharp increase in beggars in the city.  There are currently 2,600 street children and beggars in Makassar, up from 870 in 2006.

"They enjoy being street children because they can get money easily by asking passers by," Makassar Mayor Ilham Arif Siradjuddin said Wednesday.  He said street children faced high risks, and that they were commonly exploited by adults, including in some instances their parents, into earning money.  "Seeing that the number of beggars had increased over the years and taking into account the high risks they face, the mayoralty decided to establish the local ordinance," said Ilham.  Under the Makassar local ordinance, people who give money to beggars face a maximum fine of Rp 1.5 million (US$166.60) or a maximum of three months imprisonment.

Fined street children arrested

The Jakarta Post, Jakarta, 06/18/2008

[accessed 30 May 2011]

Sixteen street children and teenagers were sent to a local social institution in Bogor municipality on Tuesday because they were unable to pay the Rp 5,000 (53 US cents) fine imposed on them.  Head of Bogor's social policy regulation enforcement division Parid Wahid, said public order officers arrested 34 street children and beggars including 11 underage children.

Under a bridge downtown, we learned our math

Tifa Asrianti, The Jakarta Post, Jakarta, 05/05/2008

[accessed 30 May 2011]

RAY OF LIGHT: Volunteers of Sahabat Anak hold a study session for street children under Grogol overpass in West Jakarta on Sunday. Most of the children, who had otherwise dropped out of school, resume their studies after joinning the sessions.

Free school offers hope for Jakarta street children

Lenita Sulthani, Reuters, Jakarta, Mar 18, 2008

[accessed 30 May 2011]

Children working as beggars, food hawkers and garbage collectors are a common sight on the streets of Jakarta, many earning as little as $1 a day.  The children have often been sent out onto the streets by impoverished parents who can't support their families, and as a result, are deprived of an education.  At the makeshift school equipped with wooden tables, dozens of child workers sit on the floor, receiving lessons for two hours in the morning and another two hours in the afternoon.  It is often tough to get the children to attend classes since many have to work to help their parents, who are mostly garbage collectors.

Anto Baret: Finding strength in numbers

Wahyoe Boediwardhana, The Jakarta Post, Malang, January 29, 2008

[accessed 18 January 2017]

"The street is not their home, the street is not their refuge, the street is their life. They only need a space to survive," said the musician, who is nicknamed Anto Baret because he likes wearing berets.  Anto is the founder of the Street Musicians Group (KPJ) in Bulungan, South Jakarta.  It all began in 1980 …

Indonesia: Media asked not to overexpose mutilation crimes

The Jakarta Post, Jakarta, 01/26/2008

[accessed 30 May 2011]

Two mutilation crimes occurred in the Greater Jakarta area last week. Last Thursday, parts of a young woman's body were found in a hotel room in North Jakarta, while three days earlier the mutilated body of a boy was found in a box in Bekasi, West Java.  The mass media reported extensively on five mutilation cases in the Greater Jakarta area last year, while two mutilation cases were covered in both 2005 and 2006.  Three of the nine cases remain unsolved, with police yet to identify two of the victims.

"The victims are often street children, who usually live in groups. The killers mutilate the children so other group members won't know about it," he said.

Festival brings children off the streets

The Jakarta Post, Jakarta, December 6, 2007

[accessed 18 January 2017]

"In the long term, we aim to get the children off the streets by keeping them busy at the shelters," he said, adding the festival was also held to develop street children’s abilities and knowledge in art and technology.  Children performed 15 plays, acting out folk stories from across Indonesia as part of the festival’s focus on cultural education.

Iskandar and many other street children also had the chance to take free computer and Internet courses during the festival.  "I want to master the technology even though I realize I’m not as lucky as other children," Iskandar said.  Another street child, Tri Hariyanti from Rumah Singgah Madani, shared her story on learning how to produce aluminum kitchenware.  "It was hard in the beginning, but I enjoy it," she said, adding that she felt lucky to be able to develop new skills.

Street kids’ lives rewritten in recycled paper

Agnes Winarti, The Jakarta Post, Jakarta, November 3, 2007

[accessed 18 January 2017]

The gallery is home to 13 former street children rescued by social worker Dindin Komarudin, the workshop manager since 2002.  "They actually earn less here than the did in the streets, yet they stay here," said Dindin, 36, adding that a child can make Rp 30,000 to Rp 50,000 a day in the streets, while he can only get Rp 15,000 to Rp 17,500 as a beginner in the workshop.  "Money can be plentiful out there, but in this workshop they get the feeling of security, respect and appreciation for their work," said Dindin.  In the streets, they can only run from one police raid to the next, and they face exploitation and violence from street thugs, Dindin said.

Indonesians in Focus: Dindin Komarudin

Agnes Winarti, Indonesia in Focus, October 31st, 2007

[accessed 30 May 2011]

The problems that street children face are rooted in poverty and social exclusion, and are not amenable to quick-fix solutions. People might assume that street children are not suited to working in the business sector, yet one man holds the belief that going into business will bring street children long-term benefits.  For the past five years, social worker Dindin Komarudin has been a four-in-one-figure: a parent, brother, buddy and business partner for street children.

Over 1 million drop out of North Sumatra schools annually

Apriadi Gunawan, Jakarta Post, Medan, October 1, 2007


[accessed 24 September 2011]

"Most of these students do not want to quit school but poverty and their parents' encouragement made them have to stop their education," Ahmad told The Jakarta Post.  He said in more urban areas like Medan and its outskirts, many school dropouts end up homeless and living and working on the street.  "Currently, there are 4,525 street children across North Sumatra. Of that figure, some 2,000 of them are in Medan and its outskirts and many are school dropout."

Riska, 11, lives and works near the Pinang Baris bus terminal in Medan.  She says she has been living on the streets for two years, earning money by washing the windows of cars stopped at traffic lights.  Riska said she dropped out of school in the fourth grade because her parents could not afford to pay the fees.  "Honestly, I didn't want to become a street person. I wanted to stay in school. But my parents are poor so here I am."  She said her father was a construction laborer and her mother earned money by taking in laundry.

Increased poverty a real threat with new bylaw

The Jakarta Post, Jakarta, September 15, 2007

[accessed 30 May 2011]

The new ordinance, which would replace the 1988 ordinance on public order, bans anyone from opening businesses on streets, sidewalks, pedestrian bridges and other communal areas.  It would also prohibit people from donating money to beggars, buskers and street children.  Academics, observers and legal experts have condemned the ordinance, saying it was "ridiculous" and "inhumane" because it discriminates some minority groups.

'Ojek' ride can be bit scary but is cheaper and faster

Sobrina Rosli, The Brunei Times, Jakarta, August 19, 2007

[accessed 30 May 2011]

On the motorbike with a helmet provided by the driver on the way to my destination we were stopped at a red light at a junction. As we were positioned at the front of the line, looking around me I observed a group of children each of them approaching cars and motorbikes asking for money. The eldest girl was no more than 12 years old whilst the younger boys were between six and seven years of age. A little tanned skin boy, with a chubby round face, no more than six years old came and tugged at my pants. Looking at me with teary eyes, scruffy face and worn out clothing I gave him some money. This was followed by the other children approaching the bike I was on.

Street children in need of the most help with HIV/AIDS

Desy Nurhayati, The Jakarta Post, Jakarta, August 10, 2007

[accessed 18 January 2017]

National Commission for the Protection of Children secretary-general Ariest Merdeka Sirait said street children are very susceptible to HIV/AIDS because many of them are involved in promiscuous sexual behavior and are injecting drug users.  “The spread of HIV/AIDS among street children should be tackled immediately, otherwise it will lead to a worse situation,” he told The Jakarta Post. “The problem is that most of them lack knowledge about reproductive health and about how to protect themselves from the infection.”  He said street children have been excluded from the government-sponsored program to fight HIV/AIDS cases among high-risk communities, such as sex workers and drug users.

Indonesia gets failing grade for juvenile justice system

Apriadi Gunawan, The Jakarta Post, Medan, 07/28/2007

[accessed 30 May 2011]

[accessed 13 December 2016]

One of the most well-known recent examples of this was the case of Muhammad "Raju" Azwar, who was tried for assault stemming from a fight with a schoolmate in Langkat regency, North Sumatra, after being detained for several months in an adult prison.

A UNICEF survey in 2005 found that 3,110 underage children had stood trial and were being detained in adult prisons.  Most of these children, according to Santi, were the victims of abuse in prison.

Street kids take two days off for fun and learning

The Jakarta Post, Bogor, July 12, 2007

[accessed 18 January 2017]

For most students, July means a two-week holiday. But for street children it means two days off from miserable life on Jakarta's streets and a chance to learn tricks that can keep them alive.  A two-day "Lindungi Aku" (Save Me) jamboree in Taman Buah Mekar Sari, Bogor, allowed around 600 street children from 16 of the city's marginalized areas to have some fun and participate in educational activities at the same time.

Jamboree participants joined a discussion about drugs, sex and sexual abuse. Speakers from the Love the Children of the Nation Foundation (YCAB) provided the kids with information about the dangers of drugs and also explained to them their rights.

There are 10 integral stipulations in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, also known as the Geneva Declaration, on the universal rights of children: equality, food, normal development, education, protection from exploitation, a name, relief in times of distress, recreation, health and a nationality.

Depok street kids learn for free

Warief Djajanto Basorie, The Jakarta Post, Depok West Java, 09 July 2007

[accessed 30 May 2011]

"I opened a warung (roadside eatery) at the terminal. Street kids gathered. I learned that most of them had stopped out of school, so I opened a learning center in 2000," said Rohim, an education graduate of a three-year vocational college.  The center is financed by government block grants and donations amounting to Rp 3-4 million a month. One grant comes every six months, another is released annually.

Rohim's small businesses like the warung, a print shop and a recycling plant also help cover costs, the entrepreneurial, one-time student organizer added. The recycling unit employs local scavengers who are also enrolled the center's literacy class.

Drug Trade An Easy Trap For Street Children

Anissa S. Febrina, The Jakarta Post, Jakarta, 06/13/2007

[accessed 30 May 2011]

[accessed 13 December 2016]

DRUG TRADE AN EASY TRAP FOR STREET CHILDREN - They live with no roofs over their heads and no parents to look after them. They have to deal with the toughest experiences the streets have to offer.  And above all that, street children are also prone to exploitation as drug traffickers, recent research has revealed.  Some 16 percent of street children in Greater Jakarta are or have been involved in drug trafficking, a study by the International Labor Organization (ILO) says.

Seen but not heard, life is tough for forgotten kids

Prodita Sabarini, The Jakarta Post, Jakarta, May 24, 2007

[accessed 30 May 2011]

Jakarta's traffic lights inevitably show a bleaker side of the city. As cars slow down at red lights, little pleading faces emerge at windows asking for money. The time of day seems to not matter to them.

Pass a red light in the morning, the children are there; in the day time, the weather-beaten children are there; in the afternoon, as well as the evening, midnight, and even dawn, the children are still there. From toddlers with their mothers sitting on the roadside, up to scruffy pubescent teens, the children are a fixture of traffic lights, public buses and parks.

Data from the Social Affairs Ministry showed the city had some 30,000 street children on 2005. While there has not been another survey since then, volunteer worker Heru Suprapto from the Jakarta Center for Street Children said the numbers have not gone down.

Easing the Burden on City’s Poor: Makassar, South Sulawesi

Andi Hajramurni, Indonesia in Focus, May 24th, 2007

[accessed 30 May 2011]

Through its social office, the city will also conduct 'raids' on street children and the homeless.  All residents, including children found on the street during these raids, will attend guidance counseling and training programs before being employed in the industrial sector.  Ilham said the municipality was working with the Muslim Charitable Donations Board in Makassar to provide training programs for street children.

Already 25 street children who have been trained for three months in welding, motor repair and electricity, are now working for a number of companies, Ilham said.  "We are now working together with a number of relevant agencies (so we can) take over the training center to train street children to become workers.  "A number of companies have stated their commitment to recruit the street children at least two workers per company," he said.

Provide scholarships for them

The Jakarta Post, April 3, 2007

[accessed 18 January 2017]

Poverty is the main reason why children drop out of school to become beggars or hawkers to help their parents. Although the Constitution assures them the right to a better living, the number of neglected children continues to increase. The Jakarta Post asked some residents for their opinions on the issue …

'Govt can’t help street children'

The Jakarta Post, April 2, 2007

[accessed 18 January 2017]

While children are guaranteed state protection under the law and in the Constitution, reality is often much different. In Jakarta, neglected and abused children can be found at virtually every major intersection.

Aust man jailed in Indonesia over sex charges

Agence France-Presse AFP, Reuters, Feb 26, 2007

[accessed 30 May 2011]

An Indonesian court has jailed an Australian man for 10 years for sexually abusing street children.

The 48-year-old language teacher was arrested in Jakarta in August after seven children complained he had sexually abused them.

Amount of Street Children Rises

Pramono, Tempo Interactive, Jakarta, 05 February 2007

[accessed 18 January 2017]

The amount of street children in Jakarta has risen quite sharply during the last two years.  In 2004, the Social Services Department recorded that there were 98.113 street children but by 2006, this amount had jumped to 144,889.

Soccer Scores with Awareness and Help for Vulnerable Street Children

[Last access date unavailable]

While the rest of the world observes World AIDS Day on December 1, one of Indonesia's most vulnerable populations, street children, will be playing soccer-- and learning more about HIV/AIDS as they score.  A collaboration of Church World Service (CWS) Indonesia, the Indonesian Ministry of Health and the Global Fund, SCORE -- SOCCER 4 CHILDREN ON ROAD 2 EMPOWERMENT - is a program for street children, designed to increase their knowledge of HIV & AIDS, using the ubiquitous game as an entry point.

Child trafficking on rise in Indonesia

Australian Associated Press AAP, Dec 4 2006

[accessed 12 July 2013]

"We only have to walk through Kuta or any other tourist area at night to see for ourselves the many young girls working in the street, or in many of the clubs, karaoke bars or even hotels operating in the area," she said.  "Adolescent children who drop out of school are the most vulnerable.  "They are trapped by poor education, with little or no work opportunities. As such they are easy prey for traffickers."

Ministry of Women Empowerment child protection assistant deputy Soepalarto Soedibjo said there had been a "significant increase" of sexual exploitation of children, with no significant improvement despite recent efforts to fight the problem.

Makassar Police arrest two for running begging ring

Andi Hajramurni, The Jakarta Post, Makassar, 10 November 2006

[accessed 30 May 2011]

Ibrahim said that according to Sampara, the beggars and street children were transported to Makassar from Jeneponto and Takalar regencies.  Every day the children were dropped off near at least 20 busy intersections throughout Makassar, Ibrahim said.

Sampara told officials each child was required to collect at least Rp 10,000 (US$1.05) a day, with some children being obliged to collect at least Rp 50,000 a day.  "If the children failed to meet the target, Sampara beat them up," Ibrahim said.

Govt to send street kids to school

The Jakarta Post, September 26, 2006

accessed 18 January 2017]

The government is initiating a program to send some 800,000 street children to school. Their parents, if they also live on the street, will be trained for work abroad or in other areas of the country.

Australian on sex charges in Jakarta

Australian Associated Press AAP, Aug 8 2006

[accessed 9 Aug  2013]

The 48-year-old man, named by police only as Peter, was arrested in his rented house in Jakarta on Saturday after police received reports from two children who fled his house, police spokesman I Ketut Untung Yoga Ana said.

Foreign Minister Alexander Downer said on Tuesday the Jakarta-based English teacher allegedly had molested more than 50 Indonesian street children since moving to the country in 2000.

A solution for street children

Odo Fadloeli, Jakarta Post, Bandung, August 02, 2006

[accessed 18 January 2017]

Learning that the authorities believe putting street children into shelters is the answer, the children themselves have other thoughts. Most of them prefer to go back to the streets, where they can make some money for their families, rather than living a ‘normal life’.

The Status and Trends of HIV/AIDS/STI epidemics in Asia and the Pacific [PDF]

Monitoring the AIDS Pandemic (MAP) Network, Melbourne, October 4, 2001

[accessed 19 September 2011]

[accessed 13 December 2016]

FIGURE 15 - Since the economic crisis developed in Indonesia in 1998, the number of children living on the streets of large cities has increased.  Many of these children have sex, and for some of them sex is their source of income. Recent studies among street children in Jakarta and Central Java found that between a quarter and a third of the children were sexually active and only six percent had ever used a condom. Not surprisingly, many were infected with STIs: in Jakarta, one child in seven had a history of STI and one in 20 were injecting drugs.

To give or not to give: The city’s moral dilemma

Ika Krismantari, The Jakarta Post, Jakarta, July 16, 2006

[accessed 18 January 2017]

 ‘Giving street children money is not a good solution. Streets have never been a good place for children. When we give them money, we nurture them to stay on the street,’ Fabio Valentino, a program manager of the Stop Giving Money To Children social organization, told The Jakarta Post.  Fabio, also an activist with nonprofit group Sahabat Anak, said the streets have a serious impact on children’s psychological development.  ‘Living on the street means that the children have a greater likelihood of being exposed to violence, physical abuse and exploitation,’ Fabio said.

Malang street children join students for final school test

Wahyoe Boediwardhana, The Jakarta Post, Malang, June 10, 2006

[accessed 18 January 2017]

They do not differ much from the other students in terms of their ability to absorb lessons. They even scored on a par with regular students in the practice exam given earlier.

"They have a very low threshold for boredom, however. They are easily bored if they are in class for too long. They are not timid in expressing things, perhaps due to their exposure to the streets, so they can give an impression of being rough," said Eko, who is one of three teachers assigned by the school to teach street children.

Street children at high risk of HIV

The Jakarta Post, May 30, 2006

[accessed 30 May 2011]

A 15-year-old girl, one of the hundreds of street children hanging around the Blok M business district in South Jakarta , tells a group of researchers that she knows about HIV/AIDS but has no idea how to protect herself from it.

"Some of us have had oral sex and some of us have had sex with different people without using protection," the girl, who works as a street musician, said.

Information About Street Children - Indonesia [DOC]

This report is taken from “A Civil Society Forum for East and South East Asia on Promoting and Protecting the Rights of Street Children”, 12-14 March 2003 – Bangkok Thailand

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 30 May 2011]

What kind of problems do you experience on the streets?:  I’ve been raped, and I have to clean the train if I want to sell food on the train (16-year-old boy);   My friend got all busted up with a bamboo stick, and now the other kids make fun of him because he’s crippled (17-year-old boy);   I’m always forced to hand over money, and my friends want to kiss me (16-year-old girl);   I been raped and I’ve been bashed up (17-year-old boy)

Street Children Get Another Chance in Indonesia

Kirsten Hongisto, Christian Children's Fund, May 8, 2006

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 30 May 2011]

Before the shelter opened, most of the children slept at the terminal overnight. Sometimes the police and others would beat them or destroy their instruments. For girls, the risks included prostitution. Even though most of the youth are from the Boyolali area, they opted to stay in the terminal because it’s close to where they earn their money. And for some of them, it was safer in the bus terminal than it was at home.

Security Tight as Tens of Thousands Protest Across Asia on Labor Day

Nancy-Amelia Collins, Voice of America VOA News, Jakakrta, 01 May 2006

[accessed 12 October 2012]

In the Jakarta demonstrations, 12-year-old Yusuf heads a delegation of around 10 street children, many who eke out an existence on the streets of the capital by singing or selling snacks.

He says the children want their voices to be heard because they are here to support the rights of street children and the rights of poor children everywhere.

Social Hierarchy and the Production of Street Children in Indonesia

Yayasan Lembaga Pengkajian Sosial Humana (YLPS Humana)

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 24 September 2011]

If identity and inclusion in state go hand in hand both are determined by the fulfillment of specified state regulations, then non-fulfillment result in non-identity and exclusion. Street children in Indonesia then, officially and rightfully do not exist. They are branded invisible and they many not enjoy any of the benefits of state acceptance such as the right to an education, the right to a home, health care, or any of the other basic rights specified in the 1989 UN Convention on the Right of the Child.

Rise In Teen Prostitution

Marianne Kearney, The Straits Times, 14 nov 2000

[accessed 30 May 2011]

Indonesia has also seen a dramatic increase in the number of teen prostitutes in the last three years as the economic crisis has forced a record number of children onto the streets to earn a living.

From School to the Streets

Marianne Kearney, Inter Press Service News Agency IPS, JAKARTA, 22 dec 1999

[accessed 30 May 2011]

Although the only official study to date says that in 12 of Indonesia's major cities, there are around 40 000 child street workers, the number of working children is probably closer to 5.5 million -- the same number that have left school. The United Nations Children's Fund says almost 40 percent of young children (under 2 years old) are suffering from malnutrition

The Construction and Protection of Individual and Collective Identities by Street Children

Harriot Beazley, Children, Youth and Environments 13(1), Spring 2003

[accessed 31 May 2011]

Indonesia has a proliferation of children living on the streets of its larger cities. In the eyes of the state and dominant society, these children are seen to be committing a social violation, as their very presence contradicts state ideological discourse on family values and ideas about public order

Hope for Street Girls

Omana Nair, External Relations Officer, Asian Development Bank ADB

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 31 May 2011]

A SCHEME IS PROVIDING ACCOMMODATION FOR PREGNANT GIRLS AND YOUNG MOTHERS - In the wake of the financial crisis, street children have become a common sight at most major intersections in Indonesia’s large cities. They sing and dance or strum on a battered guitar—and then make beelines for taxis or expensive cars to beg for a bit of change.

Preventing HIV/AIDS by Promoting Life for Indonesian Street Children

Bill Black and Arin P. Farrington, Family Health International FHI, Building on Success: The Next Generation of HIV/AIDS Programs, Volume IV, Number 1, June 1997

[accessed 31 May 2011]

Iwan beat up another student at school. Fearing his father's reaction, he fled his parents' home in the Indonesian city of Krawang and moved to Jakarta, the country's capital. Since then, he has lived on the streets, making his living shining shoes, stealing and trading sex for money. Another street youth introduced him to sex. Now 15 years old, Iwan has never used a condom. He has heard about syphilis, but not about HIV or AIDS.

Free clinic for street children - Street children learn to value their health in Yogyakarta

Wied Trisnadi and Paramitha Hapsari, Inside Indonesia 75: Jul- Sep 2003

[accessed 12 October 2012]

[accessed 13 December 2016]

Street children have no access to the public health institutions. Nor do they have reliable sources of information about health.  Public health centers and the polyclinics of public hospitals regularly refuse treatment to street children because they do not have identity cards. Indeed, street children without an identity card cannot access any public service of any kind, including enrolment in school.

Information and Computer Technology for Indonesian Children - INTERAKSI

Grant period: May 2000 - June 2003

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 31 May 2011]

The goals of INTERAKSI I were: (1) to help two Indonesian NGOs working with street children to become more sustainable through capacity building and the development of technology skills they could sell and (2) to teach computer literacy to street children as a means of developing potential income-generating skills.

Japan Fund Will Help Female Street Children In Indonesia

Asian Development Bank ADB, JAKARTA, 01 November 2000

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 31 May 2011]

Asian Development Bank grants for poverty reduction projects will help victims of sexual abuse and child prostitution in Yogyakarta by providing rehabilitation, medical, and health services.  A 1999 survey of 12 cities found that girls make up 20 percent of Indonesia's estimated 170,000 street children but that programs for street children have concentrated on boys.  The survey also found that the majority of the female street children are between the ages of 4 and 18.

Griya Asih - A Sanctuary For Street Kids

Des Price, The Jakarta Post, Jakarta, October 07, 2002

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 31 May 2011]

It all started when the then 59-year-old woman opened her modest home to around 40 street children looking for shelter from the deluge. They came in droves when word got around about a kind lady who accommodated street kids, fed and clothed them.

Literacy Breakthroughs

December 1999

[accessed 31 May 2011]

SUMMARY - The report aims at sharing an innovative experience of developing media with and for the street children in Bandung region of Indonesia. The paper opines that street children's media provide a communication channel among street children themselves. It also demonstrates how an interactive media model could be developed by and for the street children themselves. Finally, the report provides exemplar media materials developed by the street children participated in this project.

Media Development with Street Children/LRCCE [PDF]

27 December 1999

[accessed 31 May 2011]

COMMUNICATING WITH STREET CHILDREN - Why won’t we throw away all these statistics and judgements about street children? If we want to work with them we have to think like them: communicate with their language.

Communication. For street children’s assistants, this means squatting, making some conversation and sharing a cigarette (if you have one…). It includes joining in various verbal abuse and street children slang and jokes…..

Who are street children’s assistants? The street children’s assistants are a ‘spear point’ of institutions who work on street children’s programmes. They become ‘friends’ of the street children and show how to build a group.

In fact, street children are a group, but they consist of independent and individual people…. Street children can steal from their friend’s pocket while they are sleeping…..

The street children never run looking for a shelter when it is raining. That means the assistants must do the same, staying out in the rain and getting wet. When the children meet at night, the assistants must accompany them in playing guitars through the night. No wonder, according to the research, many street children assistants get sick, whereas the street children, they already have endurance.

UK internet donor funds Indonesian street children center

MicroAid Press Release, September 2004

At one time this article had been archived and may possibly still be accessible [here]

[accessed 31 May 2011]

Gareth and Sarah Williams from Berkhamsted have raised over £12,000 to support the “Griya Asih” sanctuary for street children foundation’s project in Jakarta to buy their own property from the Catholic Church who are selling the building.  To allow donors like Gareth and Sarah to track progress of the project from overseas, Griya Asih has used some of the donation to sponsor their MicroAid “online center”. Using the software package they have broken down the process of purchasing their own property into several “micro-projects” such as arranging legal support, drawing up plans and finalizing the purchase. Each micro-project is then tracked individually online using the MicroAid software.

All material used herein reproduced under the fair use exception of 17 USC § 107 for noncommercial, nonprofit, and educational use.  PLEASE RESPECT COPYRIGHTS OF COMPONENT ARTICLES.  Cite this webpage as: Patt, Prof. Martin, "Street Children - Indonesia",, [accessed <date>]